A new report (released this month, July - 2019) by the United Nations paints a clearer picture of the state of HIV infections worldwide. According to the latest data from UNAIDS, the number of people living with HIV has risen at the same time that the number of new HIV infections and the number of AIDS-related deaths have fallen.
The report also highlights that key populations account for more than half of all new HIV infections; these populations include drug users, gay men, transgender people, sex workers and prisoners. According to the report, "People who inject drugs accounted for 41 percent of new HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia."
The report warns that "key populations are still being marginalized and being left behind in the response to HIV." Southern Africa is the region most affected by HIV, and central Asia has seen a 29 percent increase in HIV since 2010.
An estimated 37.9 million people globally live with HIV today, and a record 23.3 million people have access to antiretroviral therapy, which can keep the infection in check for years. HIV-prevention drugs known as PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, can drastically reduce the risk of contracting the virus, but many of those who would benefit from it don't have access to the drugs. The U.N. report says about 300,000 people used PrEP in 2018, 130,000 of whom were in the United States.
Global HIV & AIDS statistics — 2019 fact sheet
In 2018 (the latest data available)...
37.9 million [32.7 million–44.0 million] people globally were living with HIV.
23.3 million [20.5 million–24.3 million] people were accessing antiretroviral therapy.
1.7 million [1.4 million–2.3 million] people became newly infected with HIV.
770 000 [570 000–1.1 million] people died from AIDS-related illnesses.
74.9 million [58.3 million–98.1 million] people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
32.0 million [23.6 million–43.8 million] people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
People living with HIV
In 2018, there were 37.9 million [32.7 million–44.0 million] people living with HIV.
36.2 million [31.3 million–42.0 million] adults.
1.7 million [1.3 million–2.2 million] children (<15 years).
79% [67–92%] of all people living with HIV knew their HIV status.
About 8.1 million people did not know that they were living with HIV.
People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy
In 2018, 23.3 million [20.5 million–24.3 million] people living with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.7 million [6.8 million–8.0 million] in 2010.
62% [47–74%] of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
62% [47–75%] of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 54% [37–73%] of children aged 0–14 years.
68% [52-82%] of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment however, just 55% [41-68%] of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
82% [62– >95%] of pregnant women living with HIV had access to antiretroviral medicines to prevent transmission of HIV to their child in 2018.
New HIV infections
New HIV infections have been reduced by 40% since the peak in 1997.
In 2018, around 1.7 million [1.4 million–2.3 million] were newly infected with HIV, compared to 2.9 million [2.3 million–3.8 million] in 1997.
Since 2010, new HIV infections have declined by an estimated 16%, from 2.1 million [1.6 million–2.7 million] to 1.7 million [1.4 million–2.3 million] in 2018.
Since 2010, new HIV infections among children have declined by 41%, from 280 000 [190 000–430 000] in 2010 to 160 000 [110 000–260 000] in 2018.
AIDS-related deaths have been reduced by more than 55% since the peak in 2004.
In 2018, around 770 000 [570 000–1.1 million] people died from AIDS-related illnesses worldwide, compared to 1.7 million [1.3 million–2.4 million] in 2004 and 1.2 million [860 000–1.6 million] in 2010.
AIDS-related mortality has declined by 33% since 2010.
In 2018, 79% [67–92%] of people living with HIV knew their status.
Among people who knew their status, 78% [69–82%] were accessing treatment.
And among people accessing treatment, 86% [72–92%] were virally suppressed.
Of all people living with HIV, 79% [67-92%] knew their status, 62% [47-74%] were accessing treatment and 53% [43-63%] were virally suppressed in 2018.
Every week, around 6200 young women aged 15–24 years become infected with HIV.
In sub-Saharan Africa, four in five new infections among adolescents aged 15–19 years are in girls. Young women aged 15–24 years are twice as likely to be living with HIV than men.
More than one third (35%) of women around the world have experienced physical and/or sexual violence at some time in their lives.
In some regions, women who have experienced physical or sexual intimate partner violence are 1.5 times more likely to acquire HIV than women who have not experienced such violence.
Key populations and their sexual partners account for:
54% of new HIV infections globally.
More than 95% of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
95% of new HIV infections in Middle East and North Africa.
88% of new HIV infections in Western and central Europe and North America.
78% of new HIV infections in Asia and the Pacific.
65% of new HIV infections in Latin America.
64% of new HIV infections in Western and central Africa.
47% of new HIV infections in the Caribbean.
25% of new HIV infections in eastern and southern Africa.
The risk of acquiring HIV is:
22 times higher among men who have sex with men.
22 times higher among people who inject drugs.
21 times higher for sex workers.
12 times higher for transgender people.
TB remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV, accounting for around one in three AIDS-related deaths.
In 2017, an estimated 10.0 million [9.0-11.1million] people developed TB disease, approximately 9% were living with HIV.
People living with HIV with no TB symptoms need TB preventive therapy, which lessens the risk of developing TB and reduces TB/HIV death rates by around 40%.
It is estimated that 49% of people living with HIV and tuberculosis are unaware of their coinfection and are therefore not receiving care.
At the end of 2018, US$ 19.0 billion (constant 2016 dollars) was available for the AIDS response in low- and middle-income countries, almost 1 billion less than in 2017.
Around 56% of the total resources for HIV in low- and middle-income countries in 2018 were from domestic sources.
UNAIDS estimates that US$ 26.2 billion (constant 2016 dollars) will be required for the AIDS response in 2020.